The town of Arles was the birthplace of archaeology. Over the centuries, many ancient artefacts have been unearthed. Unfortunately, today, many of them have lost all contextual data, and constitute the so-called “fonds ancien” [old collection] of the Museum of Ancient Arles. The terracotta figurines held in Arles form part of this old collection. Most of them were discovered during the 19th century, and surprised the few scholars who at that time deigned to have a look at them. The latest discoveries in the river Rhône, together with recent documentary research, highlight their singularity and suggest new avenues of research. Traduction : Margaret & Jean-louis CADOUX