The predominantly upland character of Scotland has influenced the conduct of archaeological recording 
from eighteenth century onwards. Recent developments in both the practice and the theory of archaeological survey have led to the adoption of a broader landscape approach rather than a more limited concentration on individual sites. Aerial reconnaissance has been particularly valuable in revealing the traces of prehistoric and medieval field-systems and cultivation remains. Progress in research on the archaeology of lowland Scotlanci owes much to aerial reconnaissance and the recording of cropmark evidence. Particular reference is made to discoveries of Neolithic features and the archaeological recognition of new forms of ceremonial landscapes in the South- West of Scotland.